Oxford New York Toronto [etc. New York : W. Norton, Oxford : Oxford University Press, Cambridge New York : Cambridge university press, Westport : Greenwood Press, Oxford [etc. Charlottesville Va. London : University Press of Virginia, Jackson London : University Press of Mississippi, London New York Ringwood London : Bloomsbury, Paris : Karthala, Paris : Editions Karthala, Nancy : Presses universitaires de Nancy, New York : St.
Martin's Press. Trenton : Africa World Press, London : Cambridge university press, George Boyce and Alan O'Day. London New York, N. Cork : Cork university press, Kingston, Ont. Neuilly : Atlande, Dublin : Gill and MacMillan, London Cranbury, N. Dickinson and Michael Lynch. East Linton : Tuckwell press, Dublin : Four Courts Press, Malden Oxford Chichester : Wiley Blackwell, Durham : University of New Hampshire Press, Saint-Denis : Presses universitaires de Vincennes, New York : Palgrave Macmillan, Pierre or, The ambiguities Israel Potter, his fifty years of exile The piazza tales Westport [etc.
Cambridge GB : Cambridge university press, New York : Modern Library, Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, Ithaca [etc. New York London [etc.
Jackson : University Press of Mississippi, New York : Vintage books, New York : Plume, New York : Knopf, Columbia, Mo. Basingstoke London : MacMillan press, Philadelphia : Chelsea house publishers, New York London : Garland, New York : Oxford University Press, Taddeo also traded as a merchant, and had a branch establishment in Venice.
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He was a painter, mosaicist and architect. He executed in fresco, in the Baroncelli now Giugni chapel, in the Florentine church of S. Croce, are now divided between the Florentine Academy and the Berlin Museum; the compositions are taken from or founded on Giotto, to whom, indeed, the Berlin authorities have ascribed their examples. Taddeo also painted some frescoes still extant in Pisa, besides many in S. Croce and other Florentine buildings, which have perished. He deservedly ranks as one of the most eminent successors of Giotto; it may be said that he continued working up the material furnished by that great painter, with comparatively feeble inspiration of his own.
His figures are vehement in action, long and slender in form; his execution rapid and somewhat conventional. To Taddeo are generally ascribed the celebrated frescoes—those of the ceiling and left or western wall—in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli, in the church of S.
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Maria Novella, Florence; this is, however, open to considerable doubt, although it may perhaps be conceded that the designs for the ceiling were furnished by Taddeo. Dubious also are the three pictures ascribed to him in the National Gallery, London. In mosaic he has left some work in the baptistery of Florence. As an architect he supplied in the plans for the present Ponte Vecchio, and those for the original not the present Ponte S.
Agnolo Gaddi , born in Florence, was the son of Taddeo; the date of his birth has been given as , but possibly is nearer the mark. He was a painter and mosaicist, trained by his father, and a merchant as well; in middle age he settled down to commercial life in Venice, and he added greatly to the family wealth. He died in Florence in October His paintings show much early promise, hardly sustained as he advanced in life.
One of the earliest, at S. Croce he painted, in eight frescoes, the legend of the Cross, beginning with the archangel Michael giving Seth a branch from the tree of knowledge, and ending with the emperor Heraclius carrying the Cross as he enters Jerusalem; in this picture is a portrait of the painter himself. Agnolo composed his subjects better than Taddeo; he had more dignity and individuality in the figures, and was a clear and bold colourist; the general effect is laudably decorative, but the drawing is poor, and the works show best from a distance.
Various other productions of this master exist, and many have perished. Cennino Cennini, the author of the celebrated treatise on painting, was one of his pupils. Giovanni Gaddi , brother of Agnolo, was also a painter of promise.
He died young in Vasari, and Crowe and Cavelcaselle can be consulted as to the Gaddi. Croce di Firenze , by G. Ajazzi Though he became proficient on the violin under Wexschall, and in the elements of theory under Weyse and Berggreen, he was to a great extent self-taught. His opportunities of hearing and playing in the great masterpieces were many, since he was a member of the court band. This work also attracted the notice of the king, who gave the composer a stipend which enabled him to go to Leipzig and Italy.
In , on the outbreak of the Holstein War, he returned to Copenhagen, where he was appointed organist and conductor of the Musik-Verein. In he married a daughter of the composer J. He became court conductor in , and was pensioned by the government in —the year in which he visited Birmingham to conduct his Crusaders.
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Gade was distinctly a romanticist, but his music is highly polished and beautifully finished, lyrical rather than dramatic and effective. He died at Copenhagen on the 21st of December The element was discovered in in the mineral samarskite by C. Marignac Comptes rendus , , 90, p. Urbain Comptes rendus , , , p. The salts show absorption bands in the ultra-violet. The oxide Gd 2 O 3 is colourless Lecoq de Boisbaudran.
Christopher went to school near Bristol, in England, returned to America in , was afterwards employed in a counting house in Philadelphia, and became a merchant and planter at Charleston. In he was captain of an artillery company in an expedition against the Cherokees. He was a member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously from to , and represented his province in the Stamp Act Congress of and in the Continental Congress in In February he was placed in command of all the military forces of South Carolina, and in October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was taken into the Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising out of a conflict between state and Federal authority resigned his command in He was lieutenant-governor of his state in , when Charleston was surrendered to the British.
For about three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon.
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In Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; he was also elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground that he was too old and infirm; in he was a member of the convention which ratified for South Carolina the Federal constitution; and in he was a member of the convention which framed the new state constitution.
He died in Charleston on the 28th of August From the time that Governor Thomas Boone, in , pronounced his election to the legislature improper, and dissolved the House in consequence, Gadsden was hostile to the British administration. He was an ardent leader of the opposition to the Stamp Act, advocating even then a separation of the colonies from the mother country; and in the Continental Congress of he discussed the situation on the basis of inalienable rights and liberties, and urged an immediate attack on General Thomas Gage, that he might be defeated before receiving reinforcements.
He graduated at Yale in , became a merchant in his native city, and in the war of served in the regular U. Army as a lieutenant of engineers. In he served against the Seminoles, with the rank of captain, as aide on the staff of Gen. Andrew Jackson. In October he became inspector-general of the Southern Division, with the rank of colonel, and as such assisted in the occupation and the establishment of posts in Florida after its acquisition.
From August to March he was adjutant-general, but, his appointment not being confirmed by the Senate, he left the army and became a planter in Florida. He served in the Territorial legislature, and as Federal commissioner superintended in the removal of the Seminole Indians to South Florida.
In he negotiated with the Seminoles a treaty which provided for their removal within three years to lands in what is now the state of Oklahoma; but the Seminoles refused to move, hostilities again broke out, and in the second Seminole War Gadsden was quartermaster-general of the Florida Volunteers from February to April Returning to South Carolina he became a rice planter, and was president of the South Carolina railway. In addition, Article XI. Ratifications of the treaty, slightly modified by the Senate, were exchanged on the 30th of June ; before this, however, Gadsden had retired from his post.
Gadsden died at Charleston, South Carolina, on the 25th of December GADWALL, a word of obscure origin, 1 the common English name of the duck, called by Linnaeus Anas strepera , but considered by many modern ornithologists to require removal from the genus Anas to that of Chaulelasmus or Ctenorhynchus , of either of which it is almost the sole species.
Its geographical distribution is almost identical with that of the common wild duck or mallard see Duck , since it is found over the greater part of the northern hemisphere; but, save in India, where it is one of the most abundant species of duck during the cold weather, it is hardly anywhere so numerous, and both in the eastern parts of the United States and in the British Islands it is rather rare than otherwise. Its habits also, so far as they have been observed, greatly resemble those of the wild duck; but its appearance on the water is very different, its small head, flat back, elongated form and elevated stern rendering it recognizable by the fowler even at such a distance as hinders him from seeing its very distinct plumage.
In coloration the two sexes appear almost equally sombre; but on closer inspection the drake exhibits a pencilled grey coloration and upper wing-coverts of a deep chestnut, which are almost wanting in his soberly clad partner. She closely resembles the female of the mallard in colour, but has, like her own male, some of the secondary quills of a pure white, presenting a patch of that colour which forms one of the most readily perceived distinctive characters of the species.
The gadwall is a bird of some interest in England, since it is one of the few that have been induced, by the protection afforded them in certain localities, to resume the indigenous position they once filled, but had, through the draining and reclaiming of marshy lands, long since abandoned. In regard to the present species, this fact was due to the efforts of Andrew Fountaine, on whose property, in West Norfolk and its immediate neighbourhood, the gadwall, from , annually bred in increasing numbers.
It has been always esteemed one of the best of wild fowl for the table. Latham suggested that it was taken from the syllables quedul , of the Lat. It is derived from the vernacular word for the cow, but it is a mistake to suppose that the family are of the cowherd caste; they belong to the upper class of Mahrattas proper, sometimes claiming a Rajput origin. The dynasty was founded by a succession of three warriors, Damaji I.
The present style of the ruler is Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda. GAETA anc.
Caietae Portus , a seaport and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, from which it is 53 m. It occupies a lower projecting point of the promontory which forms the S.