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This contemporary head covering also appears in other manuscripts associated with Joel ben Simeon.

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Standing near a lectern on which an open book rests, the man holds a lulav palm branch and an oversize etrog citron. Delicate red pen work embellishes the inner margin of this page. Sie stehen in der Illustrationstradition Norditaliens im letzten Drittel des Beide liegen in Faksimileausgaben vor. This is especially true of prayer books, which tended to be used intensively.

The overall condition of this medieval prayer book, therefore, is noteworthy. The graceful Ashkenazic square and semi-cursive hands and the fine parchment used resulted in an elegant volume.

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It contains daily prayers, selected piyyutim for festivals and certain special occasions, a variety of special prayers, and the full text of the Passover Haggadah, the first page of which folio 54v is reproduced here. The Haggadah, which had grown within the daily prayer book from the days of the Geonim onward, was already considered to be a separate book when this prayer book was copied; its inclusion in a prayer book, however, was not yet uncommon.

The manuscript presents an interesting example of the impact of censorship. During the Middle Ages the Alenu le-shabbeah prayer, which is recited at the end of the statutory services, was believed to contain an implied insult to Christianity. In this manuscript fol. He left an open space, however, perhaps for a later owner to add the omitted passage.

In hindsight this common case of medieval Jewish self-censorship was only a prelude to the active inquisitional censorship that the Jews of Italy would have to deal with later. From the second half of the sixteenth century onward, Christian censors in Italy, many of whom were converted Jews, inspected Hebrew books, signed them, and often expurgated controversial passages also see cat.

Now she is to return to Sparta only and to appear there truly alive, while it is left to her suitor to win her favor. Here the Helena drama begins.

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In this outline the four travelers wander through the Classi- 6 Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades. Their adventures predominate over the description of the characters and events of the Walpurgis-Night proper at the ratio of two to one. The action of Seismos, now still called by the mythological name of Hnceladus, takes place and is duly commented upon by the philosophers, but the possibility of a living counterpart, which was contained in Hoinunculus, had not yet been discovered by the poet, nor did Galatea offset the Phorkyads.

All events are merely strung together and no attempt at real dramatic compo- sition has yet been made because a leading idea to bind up the whole is still lacking. The actors of the land are partly the same as in the final form, but their elemental natures or inter- ests have not yet been made prominent and only the Pygmies and Cranes are connected with Seismos. The Sirens are so far the only representatives of the sea.

The entrance of any of the great gods, except Proserpina, or of any of the heroes was con- templated now just as little as afterward. A month later, in January, , the speech before Proserpina, probably by a lapse of memory on the part of Goethe or Eckermann attributed to Faust instead of Manto, is mentioned once more. After that there is no further information concerning the poet's occupa- tion with the work until Lines must have been composed on or after August 29? That is, leaving out of account the last item, because it is on the very threshold of the year , some desultory work on the scene with the Sphinxes, Griffins, Ants and Ari- maspeans, where Mephistopheles had taken the place of Faust, had been done previous to the last days of the year That Goethe's plans of the Classical Walpurgis-Night had in the mean time undergone far greater changes may, however, be A.

Fanst was now so deeply affected with his longing for Helena that he had to be carried to Thessaly in order to be restored to consciousness. Hence he could no longer be employed as a vehicle for the exposition and, as we have seen above, Mephis- topheles had taken that place. Mephistopheles went to Thes- saly to satisfy his amorousness with the Lamiae. Hence these had to be transferred from Faust to him. Homunculus had no longer a body but started out to find one. Hence the adventures with Erichthonius and Erichtho and with the ghosts of the Pompejans and Cesareans had to be abandoned and the sea scene added.

Wagner had lost his purpose and hence was compelled to stay at home. Thus the great outlines of the Classical Walpurgis-Night must have been fixed before, January 1, or thereabouts, the continuous work on it was begun. January 17 Goethe reads to Eckermann the scene of Mephis- topheles with the Griffins and Sphinxes, parts of which had been written so long ago. January 20 he reads to him the scene 1 wo Faust nach der Helena fragt und der Berg entsteht,' the latter probably being a fragment, part of which at least had been composed during the last days of the preceding year.

January 24 work has been commenced on the scene with Chiron which at that time was not intended to contain all it does now, because even in the revised form of the scheme of February 6, ' Chiron iiber Manto sprechend Fausten bey ihr einfuhrend. Uberein- kunft ' still follows after the sea scene ; he hopes to be done ' in ein paar Monaten. Auch gehe der Gegenstand mehr ausein- ander als er gedacht. March 1 Eckermann expresses his astonishment at the size to which the manuscript had grown within the few weeks, that is about since January March 7 Goethe has been obliged to lay aside his Walpurgis-Night because of other pressing work.

As the diary informs us, this time was utilized by the copyist for the ' Hauptmunclum. The same conclusion is reached from the fact that he then was still in hopes of finishing the whole Walpurgis-Night that includes at that time, as we shall see hereafter, the scene in Hades before Eckermann left for Italy, that is by the middle of April.

In spite of this the work comes to a sudden standstill no more than one week later, for after March 28 the entries in the diary concerning work on Faust cease. Only after a lapse of two months and a half the Walpurgis-Night is taken up again and apparently finished June 17 or 18, or very shortly afterward. In order to discover the cause of this delay we must try to determine the exact state of the work during the period from March 28 to June In the first place the notes given above show that the work on the sea scene had been commenced, while the existence of lines , , , on the back of a play bill of June 12, , prove that it had not yet been completed.

In the second place the scheme of February 6, as was mentioned above, gives part of the scene of Faust with Chiron after the sea scene which makes it probable that that part had not been finished either. The fact that lines A.

Hence apparently part of the close of the sea scene, part of the scene of Faust with Chiron and Manto and the scene in Hades were lacking at the time. A similar though not quite so definite a conclusion may be reached by a careful examination of Eckermann's letter to Goethe of September 14, , in which he says : ' Zu meiner grossen Freude habe ich aus einem Hirer letzten Briefe in Genua ersehen, dass die Liicken und das Ende der ' Classischen Walpurgisnacht ' gliicklich erobert worden.

Die drei ersten Acte waxen also vollkommen fertig, die ' Helena ' verbunden, und deinnach das Schwierigste gethan. Thence they were forwarded to Genoa where Eckermann and Goethe's son were staying at the time, who left there in the early morning of July The only notice concerning the Walpurgis-Night is in the letter of June 25 and reads : ' Wenn Eckermann, bey soviel Lockungen und Verfiihrungen, noch beysammen und ein riickwarts blickender Mensch geblieben ist, so sag ihm : Die Walpurgisnacht sey vollig abgeschlossen, und wegen des fernerhin und weiter Nothigen sey die beste Hoffuung.

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This inference of his own again can only be based on his knowledge of the manuscript of the Walpurgis- Night which Goethe let him have April 14, and which he dis- cussed with him on the 18th, four days before his departure. Hence the Walpurgis-Night had ' Liicken ' and lacked the ' Ende ' at that time. Now good fortune will have it that the Goethe and Schiller archives actually possess a manuscript which offers the Wal- io Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades.

It bears on its ' Umschlag ' in Goethe's own handwriting the title : ' Classische Walpurgisnacht erstes Mundum.


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In the former case it would contain at least all the continuous work down to March 13, and possibly also the not very large amount done during the next two weeks, in the latter it would comprise everything down to March This manuscript has Liicken ' and lacks the 1 Ende' though most of those ' Liicken ' were rather gaps on the paper than in the composition and hence never filled.

It is stitched together and hence was fit to be given out of the house. It is not only stitched together but it was also never completed though there are several empty pages at the close. Hence it represents the state of the work when it had come to a stand- still and reached a temporary conclusion. For all these reasons it may not only be maintained that this manuscript is the iden- tical one which Eckermann examined the ' zweyte Reinschrift ' does not seem to have been put together till February of the following year , but also that it represents the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night between March 28 and June 12, barring some separate groups of lines and possibly a few addi- tions made by Goethe during that period which did not seem to him as of enough importance to chronicle in his diary.

According to the ' Erstes Mundum ' the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night from April to June was, therefore, as follows : The first scene was completed. The scene with Chiron ended with Chiron's account of Hercules, the relation of the Argo- nauts being put in parentheses. The following scene lacked only the twenty lines of the monologue of Mephistopheles, which precedes the entrance of the Lamiae, since lines and which are now not counted as part of the manuscript belonged to it formerly. The sea scene lacks the A. The important matters which had not yet been finished therefore were : the second part of the scene with Chiron including Manto's part, the procession of Galatea with the wonder of Homunculus, and the scene in Hades.

That the scene in Hades was still being seriously con- templated at the time when the close of the scheme of February 6 was revised is proved by the very fact of that revision. If Goethe had not actually thought of writing the scene, he would not have gone to the trouble of altering its plan. That it was still intended early in March, when the space for the remainder of the scene with Chiron was left, appears from the smallness of that space which suffices at most for lines.

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This could, therefore, have accommodated only the conversation about Helena and Manto so that at least the arrival at Manto's and her promise of aid must still have been planned for the place after the sea scene where we found them in the revised form of the scheme of February 6. This arrival at Manto's and her promise of aid, however, could not stand alone and forlorn by themselves, but needed the scene in Hades for an appiti. That it had not been abandoned in April either may finally be inferred again from the letter of Eckermann quoted above.

For if Goethe in his conversation with him on April 18 had hinted at the possibility of embodying the scene in Hades in the third act, Eckermann would not have said in reply to the com- munication concerning the completion of the Classical Walpur- gis-Night : ' die drei ersten Acte waren also vollkommen fertig, die 'Helena' verbunden, und demnach das Schwierigste gethan. It was not Eckermann's absence because he did not leave till April 22 when Goethe had expected to be done. The only answer is that, as Goethe thought seriously of the conclusion of the sea scene, he became conscious of the great difficulty, if not impossibility, of retaining the scene in Hades under the circumstances and yet very naturally was extremely reluctant to sacrifice that very scene from which the entire Walpurgis-Night had grown and which would have furnished the most appropriate prepara- tion for the entrance of Helena.

Whether, as seems to result from our preceding deductions, this was the time when the scene in Hades was excluded, or whether it had been given up a little while before, the development of the poetic Walpurgis- Xight had deviated so far from the old prose outline that the scene had to be excluded for dramatic reasons.

This is the proposition which will now be proved by an examination of the dramatic structure of the Walpurgis-Night. Before beginning this examination, however, a word must be said upon the work as a whole. The Classical Walpurgis-Night contains a wonderful wealth of thought and imagery. The lover of Greek mythology finds here not only the characters of the land and the sea which speak and act and appear on the stage, but also much else which the study of Greek poetry and art has endeared to him. He beholds the Titans playing ball with Ossa and Pelion.

He perceives Zeus with his thunderbolt enthroned on Mount Olympus or battling with his brother in the fury of storm and sea. He sees Leto ending her wanderings on the newly-risen island of Delos and her son Apollo leading a blissful life with the chorus of the Muses on Parnassus. In the same way the characters and events of the heroic age unfold before his mental eye. Hercules, hero of heroes, is seen, and the Argonauts, each in turn ; L,eda and Zeus, Helena freed from Theseus and wedded to Achilles, Orpheus descending to Hades and Oedipus pausing before the A.

Then is a vision of Paris and the Iliad extending to the fall of Troy, and of Ulysses and the Odyssy from the cun- ning of Circe and the horrors of the Cyclops to the hospitable shores of Scheria. But the naturalist also finds much to interest him. Seismos is not only mythological personage but elemental phenomenon. The Sirens speak at times as representatives of Neptunism, while Anaxagoras and Thales maintain a scientific standpoint throughout. The ancient god of transformation expounds the modern laws of evolution and the flames of Homunculus on the sea are first regarded as a manifestation of Eros and immediately afterward as the element of fire.

To mythology and science, which with the greatest art are blended into one is added much other thought and suggestion, and according to Goethe's own admission some ' gute Spasse ' and some ' Piquen ' withal.